Wednesday, September 23, 2009

आज से क़रीब ३७ दिन पहले
मेरी एक खूबसूरत सूरत मुलाक़ात हुई
डायमंड रूम में बैठे उस ऐनक पहने हसीना से
पहली बार दो बात हुई

बातों में बड़ी सयानी थी
स्मार्ट, कांफिडेंट और दीवानी थी
मैंने सोचा वो हम उम्र होगी
पर बड़ी बातें करती वो
कम उम्र निकली

तब से मैंने उससे जानना शुरू किया
दिन बीतेते पहचानना शुरू किया
कभी छोटी-छोटी बातों से नाराज़ हो जाती
कभी बड़े-बड़े परिहास का उपहास उडाती
कभी मासूम कभी चतुर
चीज़ें सीखने को आतुर

सबका बड़ा ख्याल वो रखती
सबको वो साथ ले चलती
हजारों सपने साथ लिए
निखिल के हाथों में हाथ लिए
बस निकल पड़ी है दुनिया में
कुछ करने को कुछ बनने को
सबसे आगे निकलने को

आज कुछ ३६-३७ दिन बाद
मैं उसे इतना ही समझ पाया हूँ
अभी जानने को और भी है
पहचाननने को और भी है

वक़्त के साथ-साथ
उसके और भी हसीं रंग नज़र आयेंगे
वक़्त के साथ साथ
हम उसे और समझ जायेंगे

अभी तो सब उसके दोस्त हैं
बाद में उसके प्रशंशक बन जायेंगे

बस इतना ही...

Tuesday, April 17, 2007

Multi Stage Sampling

It is the process of taking any portion of a population or universe as representative of that population or universe.

One of the type of sampling is "Multi-Stage Sampling". Let's see some detail information about this type of sampling.

Multi-Stage Sampling:


  • In multi-stage sampling the material is regarded as made up of a number of first-stage units each of which is made up of second-stage units, and so on.

  • At the first stage of sampling, a number of first-stage units are selected; from each of the selected first-stage units, a number of second-stage units are then selected and so on.

An example of multi-stage sampling is where, firstly, electoral sub-divisions (clusters) are sampled from a city or state. Secondly, blocks of houses are selected from within the electoral sub-divisions and, thirdly, individual houses are selected from within the selected blocks of houses.


  • Multi-stage sampling does not require a complete list of members in the target population, which greatly reduces sample preparation cost.

  • Multistage sampling can involve more than one method or combined method of sampling, such as simple random, cluster or stratified sampling.

  • Multistage sampling uses a hierarchy of sampling units or clusters


  • Multi-stage sampling is like cluster sampling, but involves selecting a sample within each chosen cluster, rather than including all units in the cluster.

  • Thus, multi-stage sampling involves selecting a sample in at least two stages.

  • In the first stage, large groups or clusters are selected. These clusters are designed to contain more population units than are required for the final sample.

  • In the second stage, population units are chosen from selected clusters to derive a final sample. If more than two stages are used, the process of choosing population units within clusters continues until the final sample is achieved.

For Example:

A country may be considered as divided into a number of districts; each district into a number of villages; each village into. a number of farms. In multi-stage sampling a number of districts is selected in the first-stage within each such selected district a number of villages is selected in the second-stage, and from each selected village a number of farms is selected at the third-stage for enquiry. In the case of a crop-cutting investigation, the work may be carried further by the selection of fields from each selected farm and by plots within a field.


  • Multi-stage sampling are convenience, economic and efficient.

  • The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist.
  • It can dramatically reduce the cost of field operations.
  • Usually more accurate than cluster for same total size.
  • The main disadvantage of multi-stage sampling is the same as for cluster sampling.
  • Lower accuracy due to higher sampling error.
  • Less accurate than SRS (Simple Random Samplig) of same size ·
  • Further analysis is difficult.


You are employed by a market research organisation and have been asked to undertake a study across the whole of the British Isles to determine attitudes towards the National Lottery.
What are the possible sampling frames for this study? You have been asked to interview 4,000 people in total. Consider what would happen if you undertook a simple random survey....... Of these 4,000 you might,

for example, you have to interview 2 people in Shetland, 3 in the Outer Hebrides, a dozen scattered across the Borders, and so on. As this is uneconomic, both in terms of time and money, it would be considered more efficient to undertake a Multi-stage Cluster Sample. Think of some ways in which you could divide the country up into progressively smaller sections to undertake this type of sample.



Presentated by:-

Vandana Jain (4)

Nikita Munot (12)

Friday, April 6, 2007

Simple Random Sampling :-

1) Here selection is done randomly ie. It allows every individual has a chance to be selected in the sample.
2) This method is also called as a lottery method.
3) Here a complete list of individuals within the sampling frame is required.

Convenience Sampling : -

1) Here a selection of individuals is done in groups which are easily accessible.
2) This method is also called as accidental sampling or opportunity sampling.
3) Here no any requirement of list of an individuals.

Wednesday, April 4, 2007

हाउ तो ट्रांस्लाते

वेल्ल हेमानिगी ई हवे दिस्कोवेर्द हाउ तो ट्रांस्लाते इंग्लिश स्क्रिप इन हिंदी कूल ना :))

"The art of communication is the language of leadership."

— James Humes

"The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being said"

- Peter F. Drucker

Monday, April 2, 2007

Hi dear.............
Sorry i couldnt reply your posts because i dont have net at my home. Also there is lot of problem of load shading.Now you have already given answers for those assingments. So do i need to post my comments on the same . Please let me Know. And sorry once again...............

Tuesday, March 13, 2007


hi all
well i have created my bolg with g-mail accont